OTS Queen Rearing and Knowing Your Local Swarm Dates (Part 2 of 3)

[Special note: Parts 1 and 3 will be coming next. I wrote #2 first in order to answer questions from our OTS Beekeeping group. Links will be provided soon when complete.]


An essential part of beekeeping is understanding swarming behavior including when, how, and why honey bees swarm. It's important to learn to work with your bees natural tendency to swarm and to understand how to manage bees (a "beekeeper") rather than being caught off-guard and losing your hard work and resources to the wind (a "beehaver" as Mel Disselkoen says).

For those on this blog interested in the On The Spot ("OTS") method and reading Mel Disselkoen's book, "OTS Queen Rearing", you likely understand the importance of planning around the first swarm date in anticipation of an artificial swarm and queen rearing. Part 1 of this 3-part series "Swarm Prevention with OTS Queen Rearing" will explain this more in detail. Part 3 will talk about "Successful Honey Production Using OTS Queen Rearing". This particular post attempts to give you some helpful clues to nail down when bees typically swarm in your area and give you confidence about choosing a date to artificial swarm and notch your colony. 

A few rules-of-thumb to keep in mind and give some context:

  • There is no specific date bees will swarm. ― A good beekeeper learns to observe and understand the great variability in bees and weather that influence this date year to year.
  • There is a great difference of opinion on determining a date and swarming in general. ― When you ask, you're bound to hear divergent views. Don't let this discourage you. Take notes and let the info help frame your learning and decisions.
  • It may take a couple years or more to really get a feel for your area. ― You may find that information is limited or conflicting and require your own testing and deductive processes.
  • Experience is the most helpful teacher. ― Ultimately, what happens in your backyard with your hives as you progress through a couple seasons will be the best lesson, as long as you observe and keep notes for the future.

Following are various ideas and direction to help guide you in finding your swarm dates:

  1. Have a goal to nail down a typical 2-week window for your specific location. You'll be hard-pressed, as mentioned, to actually come up with a specific date each year. It's never the same and, in some areas, there are drastic differences. However, you need a benchmark to help you lay over the other variables such as weather.
  2. Get a log book (I carry a moleskin and pen in my pocket almost all the time) and be determined to take notes.
  3. Talk to the closest bee supply store and ask what dates they use. You'll get some variance, but that's okay ― write it down.
  4. Submit the question to beekeepers in your area on Beesource.com (you'll need to sign up) and you should get good info and ideas. I submitted the question for Cleveland some time ago and gleaned the following suggestions from both beekeepers and supply stores:
    • "Middle of May"
    • "Usually early-to-mid May"
    • "2 weeks after first apple bloom"
    • "20 days after dandelion blooms"
  5. Visit a local bee club meeting (closest one to you) and ask "old-timers" what they think. Try and get information from beekeepers who've been at it for a couple decades or more.  Write down those dates.
  6. Pay special attention to beeks who love chasing down swarms each year. It's in their best interest to get their swarm traps out each year at least a week or so before swarming begins. Write down those dates.
  7. Start following beekeeping groups and Craigslist in your locale and take note of when ads start showing up and when swarms start being discussed. Write down those dates.
  8. Start watching the weather well before, during, and after swarm season and take note what the weather patterns were just before and during the beginning of swarm season. You'll learn a lot. I also like to check on historical data for my zip using TimeandDate.com (ex: https://www.timeanddate.com/weather/usa/cleveland/historic?month=5&year=2015 ). (By the way, a helpful tool to find your latitude can be found here: https://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/latitudelongitude-finder/) It's intriguing to see both similarities and differences year-over-year.

Some Strategy

Okay, if you invest the time in a few or more of the above ideas, you should have a pretty good idea of what your two-week window is for the start of swarm season. With this info, I think the following basic strategy is helpful:

  1. You want to wait as long as possible, without taking too much risk. You want as much brood build-up with the existing queens before you artificial swarm, but not wait so long that they initiate swarm behavior and you lose your window.
  2. Plan for doing your OTS artificial swarm and notching at the beginning of that window.
  3. Watch the weather a week before that date. If there is some drastic downturn to colder and/or stormy overcast weather, you can wait some time.
  4. Of course, do a check of your bees a week before artificial swarm to make sure you're not caught off-guard.

I trust this helps and gets you started with confidence. As the years progress with your beekeeping, you'll more intuitively understand the ebb and flow of swarming in your apiary and how to understand what signs the weather and bee behavior afford with your decision-making. 

As always, please offer suggestions or questions in the Disqus comments below.

John Schwartz


Notes from Dr. Jamie Ellis’ Varroa Presentation and My 2018 Plan

 Dr. Jamie Ellis, University of Florida

Dr. Jamie Ellis, University of Florida

It was a pleasure to visit the 40th Annual Tri-County Beekeeper’s conference in Wooster, OH again this March.  I missed last year but made sure to attend this year with both Randy Oliver and Jamie Ellis on board as speakers.

The focus, and rightfully so, for both Jamie and Randy was the Varroa mite. I follow Randy’s website updates throughout the year, especially his “blue towel” notes, with great interest.  

Dr. Jamie Ellis in particular was fun to listen to as I’d not had the opportunity until this conference to hear him speak. He is a professor at the University of Florida, married with four children, one of which sat with us at his presentations watching an iPad with headphones on. :) Here’s a brief bio on him:

Dr. Ellis is the Gahan Associate Professor of Entomology in the Department of Entomology and Nematology at the University of Florida. At the University of Florida, Dr. Ellis has responsibilities in extension, instruction and research related to honey bees. Regarding his extension work, Dr. Ellis created the UF, South Florida, and Caribbean Bee Colleges, and the UF Master Beekeeper Program. As an instructor, Dr. Ellis supervises Ph.D. and masters students in addition to offering an online course in apiculture. Dr. Ellis and his team conduct research projects in the fields of honey bee husbandry, conservation and ecology, and integrated crop pollination. 

There was much value in his presentations, especially for newer beekeepers or those who aren’t paying enough attention to varroa. Jamie started at a high level and attempted to help us understand both some misconceptions and the harsh realities regarding mites in the U.S. that he has tracked carefully since at least 2000.

I might distill down the key takeaways from my perspective as follows: 

  1.  Years of data since 2006 are showing that poor queens, nutrition, and most importantly, MITES are the major players year after year in killing our bees — not CCD, and not pesticides although chem is of course an important factor.
  2. Sample for mites. Sample for mites. Sample for mites.  Alchol wash is best. We should be sampling in Ohio probably every couple months, more in warmer climes. We should be careful to obtain before and after data to ensure our treatments were effective.
  3. As a general rule, treat when you hit 3 mites per 100 bees (3%) and you should sample 20% of your bees in small apiaries, spot checking in a large operation. Above that threshold and you can expect a collapse is coming. 
  4. All the data on treatment options to make educated decisions can be found at in incredible website Honey Bee Health Coalition and in particular their varroa page: Tools for Varroa Management
  5. The PDF found on that page is most helpful,  Tools for Varroa Management
  6. They are learning that varroa mites feed on bee fat, not on bee blood as commonly communicated (this has many implications for future treatment ideas)

Lots of good stuff as you can see! It was well worth the time driving to Wooster and back.

I’ve been thinking long the last 18 months about the OTS methodology (brood breaks, new queens, healthy bees) and if it alone was sufficient for managing mites. At a base level, I could say “yes” but with living with the reality over five years that the best I could expect for a winter survival rate with OTS alone was around 80% and sometimes only 60%. I’m not satisfied with 60% and started playing with oxalic acid knowing that is was more of an “organic” acid that doesn’t leave residue and can be used properly and not compromise honey consumption.

By this Spring my main idea and plan was this: continue doing OTS and take advantage of this break at 21 days to do my oxalic vapor treatment. The benefits are at least three-fold:

  1. All mites by then are phoretic (living on the bodies of bees and not under capping) and thus susceptible to oxalic contact, making the vapor treatment very effective
  2. With all mites phoretic, I only have to apply the treatment once, saving much time and making this quite scalable
  3. Much less colony exposure to oxalic with one treatment, instead of three over many days

During one of his presentations, Jamie pulled up the PDF mentioned above. I skipped ahead while he spoke and, much to my delight, this basic idea was outlined as an acceptable plan for treatment. At the end of the document, the major treatment methods are discussed including their pros and cons. Brood breaks happens to be one of these and is the main power in the OTS method. And, like I have personally experienced, it is sometimes just not enough. The PDF indicates that additional help is needed. Conversely, the information on the oxalic treatment discusses the pros and cons. It’s main issue? Non-phoretic mites within cells out of reach of oxalic! Can you see where we’re headed? :)   

With all that said, I’m confident now in my plan, which I experimented with this past year with 87% survival at this point with colonies expanding. The plan will be OTS brood breaks in April a week before swarm season and again at the end of June around summer solstice. At the 21+ day mark, I will do one treatment of oxalic vapor (with the Provap tool). And, I will up my game with alcohol wash sampling every other month, starting in April.

For those beekeepers wanting to be “treatment free” I think OTS offers one of the best methods, but I don’t think you can slide by without consistent and quality sampling for mites using an alcohol wash. You could be harming other beekeepers around you and, of course, your own bees if you get a mite problem in one or more of your hives. I personally think the responsible thing is to sample and know your mite rates. For those of you okay with oxalic as I am, I think the plan above is solid. 

Advice From Experienced Beekeepers on How to Find a Queen

 Carniolan queen and her attendants

Carniolan queen and her attendants

When we set out to become keepers of honey bees, there are numerous facts, methods, tools and repeatable tasks we must master. One of the most important to get under your belt as quickly as possible is learning how to efficiently and quickly find the queen. In this blog post, I’ve compiled notes, suggestions, and advice from several different sources on how to find a queen with my comments along the way.

Like any endeavor, successful beekeeping requires paying attention, thoroughly understanding the bee, its biology, its needs and biological patterns so that one can both work along with and also manage appropriately. Too many beekeepers are either intimidated to the point of not trying, settle for hit-and-miss success or have given up altogether. This doesn’t have to be.

At the heart of beekeeping success is the well-being of the queen.  Although every bee is needed, along with their many vital tasks, the colony most acutely rises and falls with the fate of the queen. A colony can lose a few hundred workers or drones and feel little ill effect. But, lose the queen, and the colony descends into an uproar in literally minutes. Even newly initiated beekeepers intuitively understand the need to at least keep tabs on the status of their queen. We set out with good intentions and even careful study, but, as is the experience for many, actually finding that elusive queen without harming her, the hive or yourself in the process can be a daunting task.

There is hope, don’t give up. You can do this if you are determined to do so. Hopefully, the following information will help you get over the hump and further along the path to becoming an excellent beekeeper!

Tips on Finding a Queen Honey Bee

I keep a wide variety of apiculture books on my shelves at home. I turned to a few of these first to find the comments below. I have attributed each with the author’s name and a link directly to Amazon if you have interest in the book.

1. “Fifty Years Among the Bees” by Dr. C.C. Miller, pages 66-70

”I have seen some attempt at rules for finding a queen, but after all is said, you must do more or less hunting for a queen if you would find her.”

Persistence and work! 

”I generally begin looking on the first frame of brood I come to-hardly worthwhile to look on any frame before the brood is reached...” 

This is my experience. Rarely does this not pan out. 

”...as I raise the frame out of the hive I keep watch of the side next me. Then when the frame is lifted out of the hive, before looking at the opposite side, I glance at the nearest side of the next frame in the hive; for it requires scarcely any time to do this, and if she happens to be in sight it will be a saving of time...”

After reading this again I realize the impatience that typifies my usual inspection process. I need to slow down and take Miller’s advice. 

”Not seeing her on the frame in the hive, I look over both sides of the frame in my hand, and continue thus through  all the frames...it is worth looking for her on the comb remaining after passing over those that contain brood, for in trying to get away from the light she will go to the outside combs.” 

The goal is to NOT have to go back over the comb. His next bit of advice is something of a learned art: 

”This trying to get away from the light on the part of the queen, by going from one comb to the other, makes me go over the combs as rapidly as possible without looking too closely, for if I do not see her with a slight looking, the chances are that she is on another comb, and I count it better to run the chance of going over the combs again, rather than to go too slowly.” 

It can be a mental hurdle learning to trust your eyes. I often find queens in my peripheral or without really “seeing” her, if that makes sense. You are training your senses to spot the typical pattern, shape, color difference, movement, etc that is the queen. 

If one goes TOO slowly, then... 

”...if one goes over the combs slowly enough, it is a pretty safe thing to say that the queen will be driven clear to the other side of the hive. ”

So, it is a balance of moving through the hive efficiently, with a process, but not too slowly. Not spending too much time per side of each frame but moving on and trusting the eyes. This takes practice and testing and trusting yourself. 

Interestingly, and with a twinkle in his eye, Miller describes how his wife, on the other hand, likes to go very slowly and detests having to go over comb more than once. In her case, he acknowledged she was better at it than him. Either way, Miller suggests going through a colony more than twice not worth the time and better to close it up for another day. I concur.  

Other ideas from C.C. Miller:

  • He sometimes put comb in pairs into empty hives, then another pair set next to the first but with a gap of an inch or more. He did this to all the comb and suggests that she will find her way between comb wherever she is to get away from the light (interesting!) 
  • If the pairs are left long enough, those without the queen will become obviously agitated
  • Sometimes (I seldom see this) you will find the queen on the sides or bottom of the hive
  • A strainer can be used to search for a queen (not advised) 
  • Sometimes (I very rarely see this) you will find the queen on the bottom of the cover

2. “The Beekeeper’s Handbook” by Sammataro and Avitabile, page 69

“If it is necessary to find the queen, use as little smoke as possible, open the hive gently... and remove the outermost frame.”

Good advice. One need remember that you can ascertain the quality of a queen and the colony by looking quickly at a few frames to assess the presence of eggs, in a good pattern, etc. You can also sabotage their own efforts by needless jarring, noise, scents, etc when doing an inspection. We make it easier on ourselves when we are gentle, quiet, and without offending odors. Then, pulling the outermost frame or so is vital to ensure the safety of the queen. It is common for new beekeepers to injure the queen (easy to do) by rolling or crushing her between frames.  

“[The queen] will seldom be found on frames with just honey and pollen or on frames with capped brood; she will most likely be found on or near frames containing eggs and uncapped larvae.” 

This to me is one of the most important tactics: playing the odds. A queen’s job is laying eggs. She does this for the most part without ceasing. If you want to find the queen, find eggs that were just laid. She’ll not be far-either on that frame, those next to her or straight up or down. 

 “The queen can often be spotted in the midst of her encircling attendants or retinue. When a queen moves slowly along the frame from cell to cell, the other bees will begin to disperse, but the circle will re-form when she pauses...”

As you become more adept at spotting a queen, this pattern will become more readily perceived. Not just the pattern of the workers around her, but her very shape and lumbering movement. 

Another idea from Diana Sammataro and Alphonse Avitabile: you can put a queen excluder between the two brood chambers if this is your setup. Four or five days later, the queenless box will have no eggs. There are other variations on this theme.

3. “The ABC & XYZ of Bee Culture” by the A.I. Root Company, pages 685-686

“A queen honey bee always remains in the brood nest area except when she is moving from one side of a comb to another. However, heavy smoking...or much disturbance will cause a queen to move about in the brood chamber.”

Use the general principle to your advantage. And, as already mentioned, just smoke very lightly to calm and distract the bees but not so much as to irritate and run the queen. 

”...to find the queen one removes any honey storage supers and goes directly to the brood nest...searching for the queen...on one side and...move across the brood chamber examining one comb after the other.” 

Simple, but specific details that can’t be skipped. 

”The first comb removed is usually one without any brood. It is placed outside the hive usually leaning up against the hive.... [and] will be placed back in its original position...” 

This is my practice. It’s simple and one doesn’t need to buy any fancy equipment to hold frames. It hurts nothing to quickly scan the first frame for the queen and then lean it gently against the hive around the corner from your feet so that you don’t accidentally kick it. Do this quickly and efficiently and help yourself get to the brood area as quickly and smoothly as possible. 

What’s not usually mentioned in books I read are practical next steps. I generally quickly but very gently break apart the next 3-4 frames, prying them apart a bit to give enough space to see where brood begins. I then attack that area first. This saves much time, gets me to the brood quicker, and gives less time for the queen to move about. I want to catch her before she might jump down to the deep below, for example. 

A.I. Root is thinking about this scenario next:

”If there is brood in two brood chambers it may be helpful to set the top one off onto an upside-down hive cover. This prevents the queen from running off a comb in the upper chamber onto one in the bottom.” 

We typically employ this tactic on our second time through the brood if we didn’t find her on the first pass. In a full-strength colony with maybe 2-3 deeps, I’d hazard a guess that we usually find her in the first pass about 75% of the time, within 3 minutes or less as a general rule, sometimes much quicker (especially if a smaller colony). 

Additional thoughts from ABC & XYZ: 

  • Light colored queens can be easier to see than dark
  • Some queens or lines of bees generally run more on the comb
  • Older queens are less likely to run
  • Queens sometimes hide in a ball of bees on the edges of the comb
  • Marked queens are easier to find (I don’t mark our bees and have no issues and I think this possibly could become a crutch for some?) 

4. “The Practical Beekeeper, Volume 1” by Michael Bush, pages 119-124

Bush reminds the reader that it’s really not necessary to find the queen every time you enter the hive. I completely agree. One searches for the queen only intentionally when you need to remove or dispatch her, etc according to pre-determined management needs.

Michael, like the others, encourages minimal smoke and then gives this helpful tip:

”The queen is usually on the frame of the brood chamber that has the most bees. This isn’t always true, but if you start on that frame and work your way from there you will find her either on that frame or the next 90% of the time.” 

Additionally,  he states ”The bees are calmer near the queen.”  

The attributes of the queen are focused on next. We obviously look for a larger, longer bee. In addition, we should look for:

” ...larger “shoulders”. The width of her back, that little bare patch on the thorax. These are all larger and often you get a peek at them under the other bees. Also, the longer abdomen sticking out sometimes when you can’t see the rest of her.”

I think it’s worth your time to pull up photos and video of queen bees looking straight down (the typical perspective of the beekeeper) and study the form and shape of her head, thorax, and abdomen. For me, the bare patch most often gives her away, with her pointy long shape a close second, followed by her gait and movement. Notice that the queen just doesn’t normally fit in color-wise. She’s on average different in appearance than the workers around her. Look for and scan quickly for the shape and color that’s different. “One of these things is not like the other.”  :)

I like Michael’s description of a queen’s movement on the comb.

”Other bees are either moving quickly or just hanging and not moving. The workers move like they’re listening to Aerosmith. The queen moves like she’s listening to Schubert or Brahms. She moves slowly and gracefully. It’s like she’s waltzing and the workers are doing the Bossanova. Next time you spot the queen notice how the bees in general move, how the bees around her move and how she moves [in contrast].” 

Michael rounds off his discussion on spotting queens by encouraging the keeper to have a proper mindset. Just a cursory look for a queen without believing she’s there isn’t helpful. Trust the process and remember she’s there and you’ll find her. And, like anything else in life worth pursuing, this takes practice.

I trust this information is helpful to you. Pass it on to other new beekeepers who may be struggling with this important skill. 

John Schwartz